Marine grade polyurethane is the best way to protect wooden furniture from watermarks and stains, but there are other methods to remove them. For significant water damage, such as on the floor, replacing the damaged subfloor boards is the best solution. To do this, remove any rotten wood and weave in new ones instead of sanding. Make sure the concrete is dry before laying the new floor to prevent molds from reactivating.
Mayonnaise or petroleum jelly can be used to remove moisture trapped in the finish. Sanding with a hand sanding tool or by hand can even out the surface and eliminate any inconsistencies with the wood. Clean any debris before sanding as wood is very vulnerable to water damage. Depending on the type of wood, the visible effects of water damage vary.
Toothpaste should not be used as it can abrade the top finish and damage the surface of the object instead of repairing water damage to the wood. Minor category 1 (or less) water damage from clean water may be able to be stored by yourself, but you should make sure you have enough cleaner and disinfectant as the water may be contaminated. Oxalic acid is commonly used as an active ingredient in terrace cleaners and restorers use it to remove gray or black water stains on furniture. To minimize flood damage from a leak that has already occurred, you need to immediately stop any further damage.
The above method of repairing water damaged wood is perfect for outdoor decks, terraces and internal skirts and door frames. You can save a structure damaged by water if you learn how to properly restore it. Preventing damage from happening in the first place is always better than trying to fix it afterwards.